Foil stamping is the application of metallic print and foil on materials such as plastics, paper, and card, using heat and pressure. It can be used to create a variety of textures such as metallic, matte, glossy, and holographic textures on the medium.
Letterpress is the oldest form of printing. In this method, a surface with raised letters is inked and pressed to the surface of the printing substrate to reproduce an image in reverse. Typically, metal type has been used but other possibilities include carved wood or stone blocks.
Embossing is when you raise a logo or other image to create a 3D graphic. This raised design is achieved by pushing a metal die into paper, card stock (or other chosen material) from underneath. The raised area can then have ink or foil applied to it for added effect or it can be left unprinted or unfoiled (i.e. known as a blind emboss).
Debossing is the opposite of embossing. A metal die is stamped onto the front of the material you are using causing depressions that leave a (debossed) imprint of the image on your paper, card stock (or other chosen material). You can choose to leave the debossing as it is (i.e. known as a blind deboss) or you can fill the indentation with ink.